Can you tell me how local refresh loading of such pages is done?

  node.js, question

1. As shown in Figure 1, I click hereHTML elementThis sidebar label,图片描述

2. Then I clickHTML connectionThis sidebar label图片描述

clickHTML connectionAfter this label, only the red box inside has changed (a request to the server has occurred), while the navigation bar and sidebar have not been reloaded and refreshed.
It is true that clicking back can also retreat, and the address bar has also changed, indicating that routing has played a role.
So how does it come about?
How can nodejs be used?
How can express be used?
Most large companies do not use jade, ejs or these template engines, do they

Who said this is a local refresh! Obviously, the entire page has been refreshed, but the contents of the header and other parts are the same. In some cases, you can’t see that it has been refreshed. You open the debugging tool and look at the item network. Every time you click, everything is reloaded. …

Do you want to do not refresh, go to SOSO single page (SPA) application
Let me give you a real partial example: