About git: must all files in a git project warehouse be locally available?

  git, question

Problem description
This is a very silly and naive question, please have patience to answer friends advice. Today, it suddenly occurred to me that every time a project is managed, all the files in the remote warehouse will be clone to the local. then, a question arises: do all the folders in the remote warehouse have to be local? Not very well understood, above.
This is a remote warehouse:

This is a local file:

Question added: How can I keep only the latest version locally?
(digression: this problem should not have practical significance. from a practical point of view, local and remote warehouses are one-to-one correspondence. is this the difference between svn and git? Is it the difference between centralized management and distributed management? )

This incremental storage method is equivalent to manual backup, not the difference between git and svn, nor the difference between centralization and distribution, because whether it is git or svn, it is normal to add, delete, and synchronize once (git should be labeled, which is equivalent to the folder name in your screenshot; Svn is a version, but your screenshot should belong to manual incremental backup, which may be closer to the mode of backup operation using network disk or copy method, rather than the general version management operation.