[case27] Talk about fallback of hystrix

  hystrix

Order

This paper mainly studies fallback of hystrix.

AbstractCommand.executeCommandAndObserve

hystrix-core-1.5.12-sources.jar! /com/netflix/hystrix/AbstractCommand.java

    /**
     * This decorates "Hystrix" functionality around the run() Observable.
     *
     * @return R
     */
    private Observable<R> executeCommandAndObserve(final AbstractCommand<R> _cmd) {
        //......

        final Func1<Throwable, Observable<R>> handleFallback = new Func1<Throwable, Observable<R>>() {
            @Override
            public Observable<R> call(Throwable t) {
                circuitBreaker.markNonSuccess();
                Exception e = getExceptionFromThrowable(t);
                executionResult = executionResult.setExecutionException(e);
                if (e instanceof RejectedExecutionException) {
                    return handleThreadPoolRejectionViaFallback(e);
                } else if (t instanceof HystrixTimeoutException) {
                    return handleTimeoutViaFallback();
                } else if (t instanceof HystrixBadRequestException) {
                    return handleBadRequestByEmittingError(e);
                } else {
                    /*
                     * Treat HystrixBadRequestException from ExecutionHook like a plain HystrixBadRequestException.
                     */
                    if (e instanceof HystrixBadRequestException) {
                        eventNotifier.markEvent(HystrixEventType.BAD_REQUEST, commandKey);
                        return Observable.error(e);
                    }

                    return handleFailureViaFallback(e);
                }
            }
        };

        //......

        Observable<R> execution;
        if (properties.executionTimeoutEnabled().get()) {
            execution = executeCommandWithSpecifiedIsolation(_cmd)
                    .lift(new HystrixObservableTimeoutOperator<R>(_cmd));
        } else {
            execution = executeCommandWithSpecifiedIsolation(_cmd);
        }

        return execution.doOnNext(markEmits)
                .doOnCompleted(markOnCompleted)
                .onErrorResumeNext(handleFallback)
                .doOnEach(setRequestContext);
    }
  • OnErrorResumeNext, which uses Observable, calls handleFallback inside
  • Different exceptions are distinguished in handleFallback to call different fallback.
  • RejectedExecutionException Calls HandlethreadPoolEjectionViafallback
  • HystrixTimeoutException calls handleTimeoutViaFallback
  • Other calls that are not HystrixBadRequestException handleFailureViaFallback

AbstractCommand.applyHystrixSemantics

hystrix-core-1.5.12-sources.jar! /com/netflix/hystrix/AbstractCommand.java

    private Observable<R> applyHystrixSemantics(final AbstractCommand<R> _cmd) {
        // mark that we're starting execution on the ExecutionHook
        // if this hook throws an exception, then a fast-fail occurs with no fallback.  No state is left inconsistent
        executionHook.onStart(_cmd);

        /* determine if we're allowed to execute */
        if (circuitBreaker.attemptExecution()) {
            final TryableSemaphore executionSemaphore = getExecutionSemaphore();
            final AtomicBoolean semaphoreHasBeenReleased = new AtomicBoolean(false);
            final Action0 singleSemaphoreRelease = new Action0() {
                @Override
                public void call() {
                    if (semaphoreHasBeenReleased.compareAndSet(false, true)) {
                        executionSemaphore.release();
                    }
                }
            };

            final Action1<Throwable> markExceptionThrown = new Action1<Throwable>() {
                @Override
                public void call(Throwable t) {
                    eventNotifier.markEvent(HystrixEventType.EXCEPTION_THROWN, commandKey);
                }
            };

            if (executionSemaphore.tryAcquire()) {
                try {
                    /* used to track userThreadExecutionTime */
                    executionResult = executionResult.setInvocationStartTime(System.currentTimeMillis());
                    return executeCommandAndObserve(_cmd)
                            .doOnError(markExceptionThrown)
                            .doOnTerminate(singleSemaphoreRelease)
                            .doOnUnsubscribe(singleSemaphoreRelease);
                } catch (RuntimeException e) {
                    return Observable.error(e);
                }
            } else {
                return handleSemaphoreRejectionViaFallback();
            }
        } else {
            return handleShortCircuitViaFallback();
        }
    }
  • The applyHystrixSemantics method is aimed at the call HandleSemaphore RejectionViafaallback that the executionSemaphore.tryAcquire () failed.
  • The applyHystrixSemantics method is directed at the call handleShortCircuitViaFallback () that the Circuit Breaker. AttemptExecution () failed.

ViaFallback method

hystrix-core-1.5.12-sources.jar! /com/netflix/hystrix/AbstractCommand.java

    private Observable<R> handleSemaphoreRejectionViaFallback() {
        Exception semaphoreRejectionException = new RuntimeException("could not acquire a semaphore for execution");
        executionResult = executionResult.setExecutionException(semaphoreRejectionException);
        eventNotifier.markEvent(HystrixEventType.SEMAPHORE_REJECTED, commandKey);
        logger.debug("HystrixCommand Execution Rejection by Semaphore."); // debug only since we're throwing the exception and someone higher will do something with it
        // retrieve a fallback or throw an exception if no fallback available
        return getFallbackOrThrowException(this, HystrixEventType.SEMAPHORE_REJECTED, FailureType.REJECTED_SEMAPHORE_EXECUTION,
                "could not acquire a semaphore for execution", semaphoreRejectionException);
    }

    private Observable<R> handleShortCircuitViaFallback() {
        // record that we are returning a short-circuited fallback
        eventNotifier.markEvent(HystrixEventType.SHORT_CIRCUITED, commandKey);
        // short-circuit and go directly to fallback (or throw an exception if no fallback implemented)
        Exception shortCircuitException = new RuntimeException("Hystrix circuit short-circuited and is OPEN");
        executionResult = executionResult.setExecutionException(shortCircuitException);
        try {
            return getFallbackOrThrowException(this, HystrixEventType.SHORT_CIRCUITED, FailureType.SHORTCIRCUIT,
                    "short-circuited", shortCircuitException);
        } catch (Exception e) {
            return Observable.error(e);
        }
    }

    private Observable<R> handleThreadPoolRejectionViaFallback(Exception underlying) {
        eventNotifier.markEvent(HystrixEventType.THREAD_POOL_REJECTED, commandKey);
        threadPool.markThreadRejection();
        // use a fallback instead (or throw exception if not implemented)
        return getFallbackOrThrowException(this, HystrixEventType.THREAD_POOL_REJECTED, FailureType.REJECTED_THREAD_EXECUTION, "could not be queued for execution", underlying);
    }

    private Observable<R> handleTimeoutViaFallback() {
        return getFallbackOrThrowException(this, HystrixEventType.TIMEOUT, FailureType.TIMEOUT, "timed-out", new TimeoutException());
    }

    private Observable<R> handleFailureViaFallback(Exception underlying) {
        /**
         * All other error handling
         */
        logger.debug("Error executing HystrixCommand.run(). Proceeding to fallback logic ...", underlying);

        // report failure
        eventNotifier.markEvent(HystrixEventType.FAILURE, commandKey);

        // record the exception
        executionResult = executionResult.setException(underlying);
        return getFallbackOrThrowException(this, HystrixEventType.FAILURE, FailureType.COMMAND_EXCEPTION, "failed", underlying);
    }
  • HandleSemaphore RejectionViaAfallback, handleShortCircuitViaFallback, HandlethreadPoolRejectionViaAfallback, handleTimeoutViaFallback, handleFailureViaFallback called getFallbackOrThrowException
  • Its eventType is SEMAPHORE_REJECTED, SHORT_CIRCUITED, THREAD_POOL_REJECTED, TIMEOUT, FAILURE respectively.

AbstractCommand.getFallbackOrThrowException

hystrix-core-1.5.12-sources.jar! /com/netflix/hystrix/AbstractCommand.java

    /**
     * Execute <code>getFallback()</code> within protection of a semaphore that limits number of concurrent executions.
     * <p>
     * Fallback implementations shouldn't perform anything that can be blocking, but we protect against it anyways in case someone doesn't abide by the contract.
     * <p>
     * If something in the <code>getFallback()</code> implementation is latent (such as a network call) then the semaphore will cause us to start rejecting requests rather than allowing potentially
     * all threads to pile up and block.
     *
     * @return K
     * @throws UnsupportedOperationException
     *             if getFallback() not implemented
     * @throws HystrixRuntimeException
     *             if getFallback() fails (throws an Exception) or is rejected by the semaphore
     */
    private Observable<R> getFallbackOrThrowException(final AbstractCommand<R> _cmd, final HystrixEventType eventType, final FailureType failureType, final String message, final Exception originalException) {
        final HystrixRequestContext requestContext = HystrixRequestContext.getContextForCurrentThread();
        long latency = System.currentTimeMillis() - executionResult.getStartTimestamp();
        // record the executionResult
        // do this before executing fallback so it can be queried from within getFallback (see See https://github.com/Netflix/Hystrix/pull/144)
        executionResult = executionResult.addEvent((int) latency, eventType);

        if (isUnrecoverable(originalException)) {
            logger.error("Unrecoverable Error for HystrixCommand so will throw HystrixRuntimeException and not apply fallback. ", originalException);

            /* executionHook for all errors */
            Exception e = wrapWithOnErrorHook(failureType, originalException);
            return Observable.error(new HystrixRuntimeException(failureType, this.getClass(), getLogMessagePrefix() + " " + message + " and encountered unrecoverable error.", e, null));
        } else {
            if (isRecoverableError(originalException)) {
                logger.warn("Recovered from java.lang.Error by serving Hystrix fallback", originalException);
            }

            if (properties.fallbackEnabled().get()) {
                /* fallback behavior is permitted so attempt */

                final Action1<Notification<? super R>> setRequestContext = new Action1<Notification<? super R>>() {
                    @Override
                    public void call(Notification<? super R> rNotification) {
                        setRequestContextIfNeeded(requestContext);
                    }
                };

                final Action1<R> markFallbackEmit = new Action1<R>() {
                    @Override
                    public void call(R r) {
                        if (shouldOutputOnNextEvents()) {
                            executionResult = executionResult.addEvent(HystrixEventType.FALLBACK_EMIT);
                            eventNotifier.markEvent(HystrixEventType.FALLBACK_EMIT, commandKey);
                        }
                    }
                };

                final Action0 markFallbackCompleted = new Action0() {
                    @Override
                    public void call() {
                        long latency = System.currentTimeMillis() - executionResult.getStartTimestamp();
                        eventNotifier.markEvent(HystrixEventType.FALLBACK_SUCCESS, commandKey);
                        executionResult = executionResult.addEvent((int) latency, HystrixEventType.FALLBACK_SUCCESS);
                    }
                };

                final Func1<Throwable, Observable<R>> handleFallbackError = new Func1<Throwable, Observable<R>>() {
                    @Override
                    public Observable<R> call(Throwable t) {
                        /* executionHook for all errors */
                        Exception e = wrapWithOnErrorHook(failureType, originalException);
                        Exception fe = getExceptionFromThrowable(t);

                        long latency = System.currentTimeMillis() - executionResult.getStartTimestamp();
                        Exception toEmit;

                        if (fe instanceof UnsupportedOperationException) {
                            logger.debug("No fallback for HystrixCommand. ", fe); // debug only since we're throwing the exception and someone higher will do something with it
                            eventNotifier.markEvent(HystrixEventType.FALLBACK_MISSING, commandKey);
                            executionResult = executionResult.addEvent((int) latency, HystrixEventType.FALLBACK_MISSING);

                            toEmit = new HystrixRuntimeException(failureType, _cmd.getClass(), getLogMessagePrefix() + " " + message + " and no fallback available.", e, fe);
                        } else {
                            logger.debug("HystrixCommand execution " + failureType.name() + " and fallback failed.", fe);
                            eventNotifier.markEvent(HystrixEventType.FALLBACK_FAILURE, commandKey);
                            executionResult = executionResult.addEvent((int) latency, HystrixEventType.FALLBACK_FAILURE);

                            toEmit = new HystrixRuntimeException(failureType, _cmd.getClass(), getLogMessagePrefix() + " " + message + " and fallback failed.", e, fe);
                        }

                        // NOTE: we're suppressing fallback exception here
                        if (shouldNotBeWrapped(originalException)) {
                            return Observable.error(e);
                        }

                        return Observable.error(toEmit);
                    }
                };

                final TryableSemaphore fallbackSemaphore = getFallbackSemaphore();
                final AtomicBoolean semaphoreHasBeenReleased = new AtomicBoolean(false);
                final Action0 singleSemaphoreRelease = new Action0() {
                    @Override
                    public void call() {
                        if (semaphoreHasBeenReleased.compareAndSet(false, true)) {
                            fallbackSemaphore.release();
                        }
                    }
                };

                Observable<R> fallbackExecutionChain;

                // acquire a permit
                if (fallbackSemaphore.tryAcquire()) {
                    try {
                        if (isFallbackUserDefined()) {
                            executionHook.onFallbackStart(this);
                            fallbackExecutionChain = getFallbackObservable();
                        } else {
                            //same logic as above without the hook invocation
                            fallbackExecutionChain = getFallbackObservable();
                        }
                    } catch (Throwable ex) {
                        //If hook or user-fallback throws, then use that as the result of the fallback lookup
                        fallbackExecutionChain = Observable.error(ex);
                    }

                    return fallbackExecutionChain
                            .doOnEach(setRequestContext)
                            .lift(new FallbackHookApplication(_cmd))
                            .lift(new DeprecatedOnFallbackHookApplication(_cmd))
                            .doOnNext(markFallbackEmit)
                            .doOnCompleted(markFallbackCompleted)
                            .onErrorResumeNext(handleFallbackError)
                            .doOnTerminate(singleSemaphoreRelease)
                            .doOnUnsubscribe(singleSemaphoreRelease);
                } else {
                   return handleFallbackRejectionByEmittingError();
                }
            } else {
                return handleFallbackDisabledByEmittingError(originalException, failureType, message);
            }
        }
    }
  • OnErrorResumeNext of fallbackExecutionChain called handleFallbackError
  • DoOnCompleted of fallbackExecutionChain called markFallbackCompleted.

AbstractCommand.getFallbackSemaphore

hystrix-core-1.5.12-sources.jar! /com/netflix/hystrix/AbstractCommand.java

    /**
     * Get the TryableSemaphore this HystrixCommand should use if a fallback occurs.
     * 
     * @return TryableSemaphore
     */
    protected TryableSemaphore getFallbackSemaphore() {
        if (fallbackSemaphoreOverride == null) {
            TryableSemaphore _s = fallbackSemaphorePerCircuit.get(commandKey.name());
            if (_s == null) {
                // we didn't find one cache so setup
                fallbackSemaphorePerCircuit.putIfAbsent(commandKey.name(), new TryableSemaphoreActual(properties.fallbackIsolationSemaphoreMaxConcurrentRequests()));
                // assign whatever got set (this or another thread)
                return fallbackSemaphorePerCircuit.get(commandKey.name());
            } else {
                return _s;
            }
        } else {
            return fallbackSemaphoreOverride;
        }
    }

Gets or creates TryableSemaphoreActual for each commandKey

Summary

Hystrix’s fallback is mainly divided into five types:

  • SEMAPHORE_REJECTED corresponds to handlesemaphorerejectionviafallback
  • SHORT_CIRCUITED corresponds to handleShortCircuitViaFallback
  • THREAD_POOL_REJECTED corresponds to handlethreadpoolrejectionviafallback
  • TIMEOUT corresponds to handleTimeoutViaFallback
  • FAILURE corresponds to handleFailureViaFallback

The getFallbackOrThrowException method was finally called by these methods.

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